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An examination of the rectum and colon. Gastroenterologists may take biopsies and perform polypectomy with direct visualization of the colon lining.

Endoscopic Ultrasound
Endoscopic ultrasound is used to evaluate the wall of the GI tract and the structure of other nearby organs. The endoscopic ultrasound scope is a flexible endoscope equipped with a high frequency ultrasound probe, used as part of diagnostic endoscopy by a trained physician specializing in internal ultrasound. Under monitored sedation, the ultrasound scope is passed through the mouth into the esophagus, then stomach and finally introduced into the small intestine. Once there, the probe is used to evaluate the thickness of the GI tract wall and evaluate other organs such as the pancreas, gallbladder, liver and their shared duct system. The physician may obtain tissue specimens or provide palliative injections for pain control via instruments passed through small channels in the ultrasound scope.

Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangio Pancreatography (ERCP)
A diagnostic tool to detect disorders of the pancreas, bile ducts, liver and gallbladder. Blockages or stones can be diagnosed during ERCP and treated via sphincterotomy, stenting or stone extraction.

Esophageal 24 Hour pH Monitor
A diagnostic test that monitors pH in the esophagus for individuals who suffer from common disorders such as gastroesophageal reflux, heartburn, regurgitation, indigestion and non-cardiac chest pain. The 24 hour pH monitoring system is frequently used in conjunction with a motility study.

Flexible Sigmoidoscopy
Used to examine the rectum and sigmoid colon.

Upper Endoscopy (Panendoscopy)
Direct visualization of the esophagus, stomach and duodenum. Diagnosis can be made during this exam by detecting changes in the upper gastrointestinal (GI) tract appearance and also by obtaining biopsy samples. Examples of therapeutic modalities include dilatation, heater probe or argon plasma coagulation treatment.

PEG (Percutaneous Endoscopic Gastrostomy) aka GTube
A technique used to place a feeding tube directly into the stomach.

PEJ (Percutaneous Endoscopic Jejunostomy) aka JTube
The same process as PEG except the PEJ goes directly into the small intestine.

Small Bowel Enteroscopy
Allows direct visualization of the small intestine. The thin, flexible scope can be passed into the jejunum and beyond. Disorders of the small intestine can be diagnosed and treated under direct visualization. For example, biopsies for the diagnosis of malabsorption, are easily obtained during this procedure.

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